Difference between hypothesis and research problems
You can compute this distance between any two eukaryotic species.
Example of a problem statement and its related hypothesis: The research question or problem statement is in "open-ended" form, while the hypothesis states a definite outcome or set of outcomes that we might predict!
As an example, it wasn't until at least the s that horizontal gene transfer began to be part of the theory of evolution.
A hypothesis is the tool of quantitative studies, and is only found in such studies. Which family does the above belong to? Hypotheses can never become theories.
This is called "rejecting" your hypothesis! What makes an hypothesis "non-testable?
At a minimum, of course, you need to state the research questions or problem statement. You simply may not know enough yet about the phenomenon at this point to "pre-guess" your hypotheses! We will continue looking at this metaphor throughout the class.
They are separate things. We might, then, say that the "null" is usually the "rather pessimistic" state of affairs e.
However, you'll also notice that if the opposite is true -- the null seems to be the current state of affairs -- then I didn't say we "accept" the null, but rather that we "retain" it.